Recent literature on the solution behavior of ions of nanometer size and of irregular structure will be reviewed. Small inorganic ions are usually depicted as balls differing in size, charge density and thickness of the solvation shell. In contrast, even simple ions exhibit complex solution behavior as manifested by Hofmeister series. If the structure of ions is slightly more complicated such as in the case of SCN- and guanidinium+, the ions undergo like-charge pairing and are surface active. The ions, size of which is in the nanometer scale like anionic boron cluster compounds (ABCCs) and polyoxometalates (POMs), behave in some aspect like surfactants and can co-assemble with polymers leading to supramolecular nanomaterials.
Several key stages in the knowledge-based drug discovery process require detailed information about targeted systems at the molecular level. This includes validation of selected proteins or protein-protein interactions and assessment of their druggability, identification of suitable small molecules with the desired inhibitory activity and detailed structural characterization of the sites of intervention. NMR spectroscopy was for a long time overshadowed by X-ray crystallography in drug discovery but with a recent shift in target selection towards more challenging protein-protein interactions it bounced back on stage. The particular strengths of the technique will be introduced from the biologists’ perspective and the benefits for drug discovery illustrated in the context of an actual epigenetic target.
After setting the scene of the current energy and materials transition, I will highlight the challenges facing zeolites in the future. The LCS strategy to meet these challenges, Zeolite Crystal Engineering, will then be outlined.
This strategy basically takes place at three different scales:
Sub-nm and nm level: this is the domain of active sites & point defects (nature, location, confinement...) and microporosity
μm level: this is the domain of the size, shape and morphology of particles, the meso- & macro-porosity...
mm level: this is the domain of shaped bodies as zeolites are never used in commercial processes as unprocessed powders
These 3 scales will be illustrated by case studies on:
preparation of defect-free zeolites and introduction of transition metal ions in their framework
the mosaic structure of zeolites and the opening of inaccessible zeolite cages
Federico Brivio graduate in Material Science at the Universita’ di Milano Bicocca. After a brief experience as a teacher, he completed his PhD at the University of Bath (UK) with prof. Aron Walsh. Hi spent one year at
the University of Cambridge before joining the research group of Prof. Petr Nachtigall in Charles University.
His research revolves around different applications of the Density Functional Theory and, more in general, computational methods to calculate materials properties ab-initio. He worked on both molecular and crystalline systems, joining his expertises in the approach of complex systems such as hybrid perovskites and zeolites.